Legal experts' letter to Stephen Harper criticizes response to Bedford decision

An open letter signed by more than 200 legal experts from across Canada was delivered to Prime Minister Stephen Harper the morning Justice Committee hearings are set to begin on Bill C-36.

July 7, 2014
 
The Right Honourable Stephen Harper, P.C., M.P. Prime Minister of Canada
Office of the Prime Minister
80 Wellington Street
Ottawa, ON K1A 0A2
 
Dear Prime Minister:
 
Re: Canada’s response to the decision in Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford
 
We write to you as concerned citizens and members of the legal profession.
 
We are concerned about the direction your government is taking with respect to adult prostitution in Canada. Bill C-36, also known as the Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act, proposes a legal regime that criminalizes many aspects of adult prostitution, including the purchase of sexual services, the advertisement of sexual services, and most communication in public for the purpose of prostitution.
 
As the Supreme Court of Canada unanimously  held in Canada (Attorney General) v. Bedford (“Bedford”), three of Canada’s current adult prostitution laws are an unjustifiable infringement of sex workers’ right to security of the person, pursuant to s. 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (“the Charter”). These laws were found to create and exacerbate dangerous conditions and prevent sex workers from taking action to reduce or mitigate the risks they face. We are concerned that, for the very same reasons that caused the Court to strike down these prostitution laws, the criminal regime proposed by Bill C-36 is likely to offend the Charter as well.
 
The prohibition on purchasing sexual services (and communicating anywhere for that purpose) will have much the same effect as existing adult prostitution laws. Targeting clients will displace sex workers to isolated areas where prospective customers are less likely to be detected by police. Such criminalization will continue to limit the practical ability of sex workers to screen their clients or negotiate the terms of the transaction, as there will be pressure from clients to proceed as quickly as possible. Sex workers will continue to face barriers to police protection and will be prevented from operating in a safe indoor space, as clients face the potential of being arrested if they attend such spaces.
 
As a result, while criminalizing the purchase of sexual ser- vices is said to be aimed at protecting sex workers, this type of criminal prohibition will in fact do what the current adult prostitution laws do, which is to subject sex workers to a greater risk to their safety. This constitutes the reason why such laws were invalidated in the Bedford judgment.
 
Bill C-36 also proposes a law that will prohibit the sex industry from advertising. This type of prohibition will significantly limit sex workers’ ability to work safely indoors, as it restricts their ability to communicate their services to potential clients. This is concerning considering that the Court in Bedford clearly found that the ability to operate in indoor venues is a key measure for sex workers to reduce the risk of violence.
 
We would also like to address the proposed prohibition on communication to offer sexual services in a public place that is or is next to a place where a person under the age of 18 could reasonably be expected to be found. This provision continues to criminalize street-based sex workers, who are among the most marginalized segment of the industry, and is only marginally narrower than what the Court struck down in Bedford. The law will have the same effect of displacing sex workers to isolated areas where they are more likely to work alone in order to avoid police detection, and where they will continue to rush into vehicles without taking the time to screen clients and negotiate the terms of the transaction.
 
We urge you to keep in mind the harms that the Court in Bedford said were caused by criminal prohibitions and to ensure that any future legal regime conforms to the Charter and does not cause sex workers an increased risk of harm.
 
Yours sincerely,
 

1 Adam J. Norget, Edmonton AB, Parlee McLaws LLP
2 Adrian McKeown, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Family Maintenance Enforcement Program
3 Adrienne Smith, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
4 Adrienne Telford, Toronto ON, Cavalluzzo
5 Alan Young, Toronto ON, Associate Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School
6 Alana Klein, Montreal QC, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
7 Aleem Bharmal, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
8 Alison Latimer, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
9 Alison Symington, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
10 Allison Tremblay, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
11 Amanda Carling, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto (Board Member)
12 Amanda Driscoll, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
13 Amanda Merritt, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
14 Amber Prince, Vancouver BC, Adjunct Faculty, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia
15 Amita Vulimiri, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
16 Amy Wah, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
17 Andrée Bourbeau, Montreal QC, Ouellet, Nadon et Associé(e)s
18 Andrew MacIsaac, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
19 Andrew Pilliar, Vancouver BC, JD (University of Toronto) | LLM, PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
20 Angela Campbell, Montreal QC, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
21 Angela Chaisson, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
22 Angela Juba, Vancouver BC, McCarthy Tetrault LLP
23 Anna Johnston, Vancouver BC, West Coast Environmental Law
24 Anna Lund, Vancouver BC, LLB (University of Alberta) | LLM (University of California, Berkeley) | PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
25 Anne Beveridge, Burnaby BC, Barrister + Solicitor
26 Anne Robinson, Quebec QC, Chercheuse Associée, Chaire Claire-Bonenfant, University Laval
27 Ashleigh Keall, London UK, LLB (University of British Columbia) | MPhil/PhD (c) (University College London)
28 Audrey Macklin, Toronto ON, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
29 Ava Murphy, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
30 barbara findlay Q.C., Vancouver BC, Law Offices of barbara findlay Q.C.
31 Benjamin Berger, Toronto ON, Associate Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School
32 Bibhas Vaze, Vancouver BC, Bibhas Vaze Law Corporation
33 Bijon Roy, Ottawa ON, Champ & Associates
34 Brenda Cossman, Toronto ON, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
35 Brendan Van Niejenhuis, Toronoto ON, Stockwoods LLP
36 Brent Olthuis, Vancouver BC, Hunter Litigation Chambers
37 Brett Matthews, Vancouver BC, Hastings Labour Law Office
38 Brian Wallace Q.C., C.Arb., Victoria BC, Brian J. Wallace Law Corporation
39 Bridget Gilbride, Vancouver BC, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP
40 Brock Martland, Vancouver BC, Martland & Saunier
41 Brydie Bethell, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
42 Cameron Ward, Vancouver BC, A. Cameron Ward Law Corporation
43 Carmen Cheung, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
44 Caroline Braun, Montreal QC, Avocate Defense Aide Juridique
45 Cécile Kazatchkine, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
46 Charlene Wiseman, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
47 Charles-Maxime Panaccio SJD, Ottawa ON, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
48 Christa Big Canoe, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
49 Christina Zahar, Whitehorse YT, Daniel S. Shier Law Office
50 Christine Mainville, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
51 Christine Vézina, Québec QC, Professeure Adjointe, Faculté de Droit, Université Laval
52 Claire Truesdale, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
53 Claude Longpré-Poirier, Montreal QC, Coalition des Organismes Communautaires Québécois de Lutte Contre le Sida
54 Clayton Ruby C.M., Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
55 Constance MacIntosh, Halifax NS, Director, Dalhousie Health Law Institute | Associate Professor, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
56 Craig Bavis, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
57 Cynthia Petersen, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
58 Dale Melville, Victoria BC, McCullough Blazina Dieno Gustafson & Watt
59 Daniel Girlando, Toronto ON, Borden Ladner Gervais LLP
60 Daniel Sheppard, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
61 Danielle Larkin, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
62 Danielle Robitaille, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
63 David Olson, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
64 David Blair, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
65 David Fai, Vancouver BC, David N. Fai Law Corporation
66 David Wotherspoon, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
67 Debra Parkes, Winnipeg MB, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba
68 Dominique Neuman, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
69 Douglas King, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
70 Efrat Arbel, Vancouver BC, JD (University of British Columbia) | LLM, SJD (Harvard University) | Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, (University of British Columbia)
71 Elaine Craig, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Schulich School of Law
72 Élie Ducharme, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
73 Elin Sigurdson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
74 Emily Hill, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
75 Emily Kidd White, New York NY, LLB (Queen’s University) | JSD (c), (New York University, School of Law)
76 Emma Siemiatycki, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
77 Erin Dann, Toronto ON, Di Luca Barristers
78 Erin Thomson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
79 Errol P. Mendes, Ottawa ON, Editor-in-Chief, National Journal of Constitutional Law| Visiting Fellow, Harvard Law School | Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
80 Eugene Kung, Vancouver BC, West Coast Environmental Law
81 Eugene Oscapella, Ottawa ON, Part-time Professor, Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa
82 Eva Massai Warden, Toronto ON
83 Fallon Melander, Toronto ON, Member of the Law Society of Upper Canada
84 Gavin Cameron, Vancouver BC, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP
85 Gerald Chan, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
86 Grace A. Jackson, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
87 Grace Pastine, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
88 H. Archibald Kaiser, Halifax NS, Professor, Schulich School of Law and Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine (Cross-Appointment) Dalhousie University
89 Han-Ru Zhou, Montreal QC, Professor adjoint, Faculté de droit, Université de Montréal
90 Heather Hansen, Toronto ON, Martha McCarthy & Company LLP
91 Heidi Matthews, Cambridge MA, LLB-BCL (McGill University)| SJD (c) (Harvard Law School)
92 Ingrid Grant, Toronto ON, Silverstein & Associate
93 Jackie Esmonde, Toronto ON, Law Union of Ontario & Income Security Advocacy Centre
94 Jacqueline Flett, Victoria BC, Flett Law
95 Jacqueline Small, Vancouver BC, Holness Law Group
96 Jamie Baxter, Halifax NS, Schulich Fellow, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
97 Jason Gratl, Vancouver BC, Gratl and Company
98 Jean-Yves LeBlanc, Montréal QC, LL.B & Criminologist
99 Jeff Carolin, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
100 Jeff Johnson, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
101 Jeff Langlois, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
102 Jeffery Sanders, Vancouver BC, Canadian Merchant Service Guild
103 Jennifer Klinck, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
104 Jennifer Metcalfe, Abbotsford BC, Prisoners’ Legal Services
105 Joanna Erdman, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
106 Joanna Gislason, Vancouver BC, Caroline + Gislason LLP
107 John Conroy Q.C., Abbotsford BC, Conroy + Company Law Corporation
108 John Hodgins, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
109 John Norquay, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
110 John Norris, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
111 John Rogers Q.C., Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
112 Jonathan Chapnick, Burnaby BC, Hospital Employees Union
113 Jonathan Hanvelt, Vancouver BC, Banister Law Corporation
114 Jonathan Shime, Toronto ON, Cooper, Sandler, Shime & Bergman LLP
115 Joseph Arvay Q.C., Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
116 Josh Paterson, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
117 Julia Grignon, Québec QC, Professeure, Directrice par Intérim de la Clinique de Droit International Pénal et Humanitaire | Co-directrice du Interdisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Afrique et le Moyen Centre Orient, Faculté de droit | Université Laval
118 Juliana Dalley, Vancouver BC
119 Julie Pelletier D.D.N.; LLL, Montréal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
120 Julie Shugarman, Montreal QC
121 Karen Mirsky, New Westminster BC, Browning, Ray, Soga, Dunne & Mirsky
122 Karen Slaughter, Abbotsford BC, Prisoners’ Legal Services
123 Karin Galldin, Ottawa ON, Canadian Bar Association
124 Kate Blomfield, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
125 Katherine Lippel, Ottawa ON, Professor of Law, Civil Law Section, University of Ottawa
126 Kathy Grant, Vancouver BC
127 Katrina Pacey, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
128 Katrina Peddle, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
129 Keith Hamilton Q.C., Vancouver BC
130 Kent Roach, Toronto ON, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
131 Kent West, Edmonton AB, Brownlee LLP
132 Kevin Tilley, Vancouver BC, CUPE Local 15
133 Kirk Tousaw, Duncan BC, Law Office of Kirk Tousaw
134 Krista Robertson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
135 Kristy Sim, The Hague, The Netherlands, LLB (University of British Columbia) | MSt (University of Oxford)
136 Kyle Kirkup, Toronto ON, JD (Univesity of Ottawa) | LLM (Yale University)| SJD (c) (University of Toronto)
137 Lainie Basman, Toronto ON, Legal Aid Ontario
138 Laura Best, Vancouver BC, Embarkation Law Group
139 Leslie Robertson, Ottawa ON, Barrister + Solicitor
140 Lindsay Lyster, Vancouver BC, Moore Edgar Lyster,| President, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
141 Lisa Glowacki, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
142 Lisa Jean Helps, Vancouver BC, Helps Law
143 Lisa Kelly, Cambridge MA, JD (University of Toronto) | SJD (c) (Harvard Law School)
144 Lisa Kerr, New York NY, LLB (University of British Columbia) | LLM, JSD (c) (New York University)
145 Lobat Sadrehashemi, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
146 Louisa Chantler, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
147 Lyndsay Watson, Vancouver BC, Caroline + Gislason LLP
148 M. Kathleen Kinch, Vancouver BC
149 Maegen Giltrow, Vancouver BC, Lidstone & Company
150 Maia Tsurumi, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
151 Manpreet Dhaliwal, Toronto ON, Paliare Roland Rosenberg Rothstein
152 Marc Zurbuchen, Winnipeg MB, Rolston & Associates
153 Margot McMillan, Kamloops BC, Fulton & Company LLP
154 Maria Powell, Halifax NS, JD (University of New Brunswick)| LLM (c) (Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University)
155 Marie Manikis, Montreal QC, Assistant Professor, Law Faculty, McGill University
156 Marie-Eve Sylvestre, Ottawa ON, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
157 Marjorie Brown, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
158 Mark Redgwell, Victoria BC, Barrister + Solicitor
159 Mark Rowlinson, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
160 Marlys Edwardh, C.M., Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
161 Martha McCarthy LSM, Toronto ON, Martha McCarthy & Company LLP
162 Mary Childs, Vancouver BC, Ethos Law Group LLP
163 Matthew Gourlay, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
164 Matthew Herder, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Faculties of Medicine and Law, Dalhousie University
165 Matthew Nathanson, Vancouver BC, MN Law
166 Meagan Johnston, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
167 Megan McConnell, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
168 Megan Schwartzentruber, Toronto ON, Cooper, Sandler, Shime & Bergman LLP
169 Megan Vis-Dunbar, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
170 Meredith Hagel, Vancouver BC, LLB (University of Alberta) | LLM (Cambridge University)| PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
171 Micah Rankin, Kamloops BC, Thompson Rivers University
172 Michael Feder, Vancouver BC, McCarthy Tétrault LLP
173 Michael Fenrick, Toronto ON, Paliare Roland Rosenberg Rothstein LLP | Adjunct Faculty, University of Toronto Faculty of Law and Osgoode Hall Law School
174 Michael Jackson Q.C., Vancouver BC, Professor, University of British Columbia Faculty of Law
175 Michael McCubbin, Vancouver BC, Law Offices of Michael McCubbin
176 Michael Tammen Q.C., Vancouver BC, Michael Tammen Law Corporation
177 Mina Chamsi, Montreal QC
178 Nader Hasan, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
179 Neil Chantler, Vancouver BC, Chantler & Company
180 Nicolas Martin Rouleau, Toronto ON, Nicolas M. Rouleau Professional Corporation / Nicolas M. Rouleau, Société Professionnelle
181 Nikki Charlton, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
182 Ondine Snowdon, Abbotsford BC, Grace, Snowdon & Terepocki LLP
183 Pablo Irribarra, Toronto ON, Jordan Battista LLP
184 Perri Ravon, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
185 Peter Copeland, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
186 Raji Mangat, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
187 Rene-John Nicholas, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
188 Renee Lang, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
189 Richard Elliott, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
190 Richard Fowler, Vancouver BC, Fowler and Smith
191 Rishi Gill, Vancouver BC, RTG Law Corporation
192 Robert Champagne, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
193 Robert Cooper, Vancouver BC, Cooper Litigation
194 Robert Leckey, Montreal QC, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
195 Robin Whitehead, Ottawa ON, Barrister + Solicitor
196 Russell Silverstein, Toronto ON, Silverstein & Associate
197 Ryan Clements, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
198 Ryan Parsons, Vancouver BC, Eyford Macaulay Shaw & Padmanabhan LLP
199 Ryan Peck, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
200 Samuel Singer, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
201 Sandra Ka Hon Chu, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
202 Sarah Allan, Vancouver BC, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
203 Sara Hopkins, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
204 Sarah Pole, Toronto ON, Law in Action Within Schools Program
205 Sarah Sharp, Vancouver BC
206 Scott Bernstein, New York NY, JD (University of British Columbia) | Open Society Foundations
207 Shaheen Hirani, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
208 Sonia Lawrence, Toronto ON, Osgoode Hall Law School
209 Stefanie Quelch, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
210 Stephanie Claivaz-Loranger, Saint-Charlessur-Richelieu QC, Barrister + Solicitor
211 Stephanie Drake, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
212 Steven Rogers, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
213 Tanya DeMello, Toronto ON
214 Tara Santini, Montreal QC
215 Timothy Dickson, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
216 Tonia Grace, Abbotsford BC, Grace, Snowdon & Terepocki LLP
217 Trevor Winter, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto (Board Member)
218 Ummni Khan, Ottawa ON, Faculty of Law and Legal Studies, Carleton University
219 Véronique Fortin, Montreal QC, Member of the Quebec Bar,| PhD (c) (University of California, Irvine)
220 Virginia Mathers, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
221 Walid Hijazi, Montréal QC, Desrosiers Joncas Nouraie Massicotte
222 Zoe Sinel, London ON, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Western University


7 juillet 2014
 
Le très honorable Stephen Harper, P.C., M.P. Premier Ministre du Canada
Bureau du Premier Ministre
80, rue Wellington
Ottawa, ON K1A 0A2
 
Monsieur le Premier Ministre,
 
Re: Réponse du Canada au jugement dans Canada (Procureur général) c. Bedford
 
Nous vous écrivons en tant que citoyens et membres de la communauté juridique.
 
Nous sommes préoccupés par l’orientation  envisagée par votre gouvernement en ce qui a trait à la prostitution adulte au Canada. Le projet de loi C‐36, intitulé Loi sur la protection des collectivités et des personnes victimes d’exploitation, propose un régime légal criminalisant plusieurs aspects de la prostitution adulte, y compris l’achat de services sexuels, la publicité de services sexuels et la majorité des communications publiques relatives à la prostitution.
 
Tel qu’établi dans le jugement unanime de la Cour su- prême du Canada, Canada (Procureur Général du Canada) c. Bedford (“Bedford”), trois des articles de loi actuels sur la prostitution constituent, en vertu de l’article 7 de la Charte canadienne des droits et libertés (“la Charte”), une atteinte injustifiable  aux droits des travailleurs(euses)  du sexe et à la sécurité de leur personne. La Cour a jugé que ces articles de loi créent et exacerbent des conditions de travail dangereuses  pour les travailleurs(euese) du sexe, les empêchant ainsi de prendre les moyens nécessaires pour réduire ou atténuer les risques auxquels ils(elles) doivent faire face. Nous sommes préoccupés que le régime proposé par le projet de loi C-36 est susceptible de contrevenir à la Charte pour les mêmes raisons ayant amenées la Cour à invalider les trois articles de loi concernant la prostitution.
 
L’interdiction de l’achat de services sexuels (et la communication n’importe où à cet effet), aurait les mêmes effets que la loi actuelle sur la prostitution adulte. En ciblant les clients, l’on déplacerait les travailleurs(euses) du sexe vers des endroits isolés où les clients potentiels seraient moins susceptibles d’être repérés par la police. Une telle criminalisation continuerait aussi de limiter la capacité effective des travailleurs(euses) du sexe de filtrer leurs clients ou de négocier les termes de la transaction, puisqu’il y aura des pressions de la part des clients de procéder le plus rapidement possible. Une telle criminalisation continuerait également de restreindre l’accès à la protection policière, puisque tant les travailleurs(euses) que les clients craindront la présence policière. De surcroît, les travailleurs(euses) du sexe continuent d’être empêchés(ées) d’opérer dans des endroits sécuritaires intérieurs, puisque les clients seraient susceptibles d’être arrêtés s’ils s’y rendent.
 
En conséquence, bien que la criminalisation  des clients pour l’achat de services sexuels vise soi-disant la protection des travailleurs(euses) du sexe, le mode de prohibition envisagé reproduira les effets des lois actuelles, soit de mettre à risque la sécurité même des travailleurs(euses) du sexe, entraînant du coup les mêmes maux qui ont motivé l’invalidation des lois dans le jugement Bedford.
 
Le projet de loi C-36 propose aussi un article de loi qui interdirait à l’industrie du sexe de faire de la publicité. Ce type d’interdiction  limiterait de façon significative la capacité des travailleurs(euses) du sexe de travailler en toute sécurité à l’intérieur car cela limiterait leurs aptitudes à communiquer leurs services aux clients potentiels. Ceci est troublant car la Cour a clairement jugé, dans la décision Bedford, que la capacité de fonctionner à l’intérieur est essentielle pour réduire les risques de violences auprès des travailleurs(euses) du sexe.
 
Nous sommes également préoccupés par l’interdiction proposée d’offrir des services sexuels dans un endroit public où une personne de moins de 18 ans pourrait raisonnable- ment se trouver. Cet article de loi continue de criminaliser les travailleurs(euses) du sexe qui travaillent  dans la rue, ceux‐ci  (celles-ci) figurant  parmi le  groupe  le  plus margin- alisé de l’industrie; cet article est seulement marginalement moins restrictif que l’article de loi qui a été invalidé par la Cour dans Bedford. L’article de loi aura le même effet de déplacer les travailleurs(euses) du sexe vers des zones isolées où ils(elles) seront davantage susceptibles  de travailler seuls pour éviter d’être détectés par la police, et de se précipiter dans des véhicules sans prendre le temps de filtrer certains clients ou de négocier les termes de la transaction.
 
Nous vous exhortons à garder en mémoire que les maux dénoncés par la Cour dans Bedford sont la conséquence d’une prohibition criminelle et à vous assurer que le futur régime légal soit conforme à la Charte et qu’ainsi ce nouveau régime n’entraîne pas de risques accrus pour les travailleurs(euses) du sexe.
 
Bien à vous,
 

1 Adam J. Norget, Edmonton AB, Parlee McLaws LLP
2 Adrian McKeown, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Family Maintenance Enforcement Program
3 Adrienne Smith, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
4 Adrienne Telford, Toronto ON, Cavalluzzo
5 Alan Young, Toronto ON, Associate Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School
6 Alana Klein, Montreal QC, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
7 Aleem Bharmal, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
8 Alison Latimer, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
9 Alison Symington, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
10 Allison Tremblay, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
11 Amanda Carling, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto (Board Member)
12 Amanda Driscoll, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
13 Amanda Merritt, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
14 Amber Prince, Vancouver BC, Adjunct Faculty, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia
15 Amita Vulimiri, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
16 Amy Wah, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
17 Andrée Bourbeau, Montreal QC, Ouellet, Nadon et Associé(e)s
18 Andrew MacIsaac, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
19 Andrew Pilliar, Vancouver BC, JD (University of Toronto) | LLM, PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
20 Angela Campbell, Montreal QC, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
21 Angela Chaisson, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
22 Angela Juba, Vancouver BC, McCarthy Tetrault LLP
23 Anna Johnston, Vancouver BC, West Coast Environmental Law
24 Anna Lund, Vancouver BC, LLB (University of Alberta) | LLM (University of California, Berkeley) | PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
25 Anne Beveridge, Burnaby BC, Barrister + Solicitor
26 Anne Robinson, Quebec QC, Chercheuse Associée, Chaire Claire-Bonenfant, University Laval
27 Ashleigh Keall, London UK, LLB (University of British Columbia) | MPhil/PhD (c) (University College London)
28 Audrey Macklin, Toronto ON, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
29 Ava Murphy, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
30 barbara findlay Q.C., Vancouver BC, Law Offices of barbara findlay Q.C.
31 Benjamin Berger, Toronto ON, Associate Professor, Osgoode Hall Law School
32 Bibhas Vaze, Vancouver BC, Bibhas Vaze Law Corporation
33 Bijon Roy, Ottawa ON, Champ & Associates
34 Brenda Cossman, Toronto ON, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
35 Brendan Van Niejenhuis, Toronoto ON, Stockwoods LLP
36 Brent Olthuis, Vancouver BC, Hunter Litigation Chambers
37 Brett Matthews, Vancouver BC, Hastings Labour Law Office
38 Brian Wallace Q.C., C.Arb., Victoria BC, Brian J. Wallace Law Corporation
39 Bridget Gilbride, Vancouver BC, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP
40 Brock Martland, Vancouver BC, Martland & Saunier
41 Brydie Bethell, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
42 Cameron Ward, Vancouver BC, A. Cameron Ward Law Corporation
43 Carmen Cheung, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
44 Caroline Braun, Montreal QC, Avocate Defense Aide Juridique
45 Cécile Kazatchkine, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
46 Charlene Wiseman, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
47 Charles-Maxime Panaccio SJD, Ottawa ON, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
48 Christa Big Canoe, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
49 Christina Zahar, Whitehorse YT, Daniel S. Shier Law Office
50 Christine Mainville, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
51 Christine Vézina, Québec QC, Professeure Adjointe, Faculté de Droit, Université Laval
52 Claire Truesdale, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
53 Claude Longpré-Poirier, Montreal QC, Coalition des Organismes Communautaires Québécois de Lutte Contre le Sida
54 Clayton Ruby C.M., Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
55 Constance MacIntosh, Halifax NS, Director, Dalhousie Health Law Institute | Associate Professor, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
56 Craig Bavis, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
57 Cynthia Petersen, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
58 Dale Melville, Victoria BC, McCullough Blazina Dieno Gustafson & Watt
59 Daniel Girlando, Toronto ON, Borden Ladner Gervais LLP
60 Daniel Sheppard, Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
61 Danielle Larkin, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
62 Danielle Robitaille, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
63 David Olson, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
64 David Blair, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
65 David Fai, Vancouver BC, David N. Fai Law Corporation
66 David Wotherspoon, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
67 Debra Parkes, Winnipeg MB, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba
68 Dominique Neuman, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
69 Douglas King, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
70 Efrat Arbel, Vancouver BC, JD (University of British Columbia) | LLM, SJD (Harvard University) | Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, (University of British Columbia)
71 Elaine Craig, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Schulich School of Law
72 Élie Ducharme, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
73 Elin Sigurdson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
74 Emily Hill, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto
75 Emily Kidd White, New York NY, LLB (Queen’s University) | JSD (c), (New York University, School of Law)
76 Emma Siemiatycki, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
77 Erin Dann, Toronto ON, Di Luca Barristers
78 Erin Thomson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
79 Errol P. Mendes, Ottawa ON, Editor-in-Chief, National Journal of Constitutional Law| Visiting Fellow, Harvard Law School | Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
80 Eugene Kung, Vancouver BC, West Coast Environmental Law
81 Eugene Oscapella, Ottawa ON, Part-time Professor, Department of Criminology, University of Ottawa
82 Eva Massai Warden, Toronto ON
83 Fallon Melander, Toronto ON, Member of the Law Society of Upper Canada
84 Gavin Cameron, Vancouver BC, Fasken Martineau DuMoulin LLP
85 Gerald Chan, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
86 Grace A. Jackson, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
87 Grace Pastine, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
88 H. Archibald Kaiser, Halifax NS, Professor, Schulich School of Law and Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine (Cross-Appointment) Dalhousie University
89 Han-Ru Zhou, Montreal QC, Professor adjoint, Faculté de droit, Université de Montréal
90 Heather Hansen, Toronto ON, Martha McCarthy & Company LLP
91 Heidi Matthews, Cambridge MA, LLB-BCL (McGill University)| SJD (c) (Harvard Law School)
92 Ingrid Grant, Toronto ON, Silverstein & Associate
93 Jackie Esmonde, Toronto ON, Law Union of Ontario & Income Security Advocacy Centre
94 Jacqueline Flett, Victoria BC, Flett Law
95 Jacqueline Small, Vancouver BC, Holness Law Group
96 Jamie Baxter, Halifax NS, Schulich Fellow, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
97 Jason Gratl, Vancouver BC, Gratl and Company
98 Jean-Yves LeBlanc, Montréal QC, LL.B & Criminologist
99 Jeff Carolin, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
100 Jeff Johnson, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
101 Jeff Langlois, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
102 Jeffery Sanders, Vancouver BC, Canadian Merchant Service Guild
103 Jennifer Klinck, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
104 Jennifer Metcalfe, Abbotsford BC, Prisoners’ Legal Services
105 Joanna Erdman, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University
106 Joanna Gislason, Vancouver BC, Caroline + Gislason LLP
107 John Conroy Q.C., Abbotsford BC, Conroy + Company Law Corporation
108 John Hodgins, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
109 John Norquay, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
110 John Norris, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
111 John Rogers Q.C., Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
112 Jonathan Chapnick, Burnaby BC, Hospital Employees Union
113 Jonathan Hanvelt, Vancouver BC, Banister Law Corporation
114 Jonathan Shime, Toronto ON, Cooper, Sandler, Shime & Bergman LLP
115 Joseph Arvay Q.C., Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
116 Josh Paterson, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
117 Julia Grignon, Québec QC, Professeure, Directrice par Intérim de la Clinique de Droit International Pénal et Humanitaire | Co-directrice du Interdisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Afrique et le Moyen Centre Orient, Faculté de droit | Université Laval
118 Juliana Dalley, Vancouver BC
119 Julie Pelletier D.D.N.; LLL, Montréal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
120 Julie Shugarman, Montreal QC
121 Karen Mirsky, New Westminster BC, Browning, Ray, Soga, Dunne & Mirsky
122 Karen Slaughter, Abbotsford BC, Prisoners’ Legal Services
123 Karin Galldin, Ottawa ON, Canadian Bar Association
124 Kate Blomfield, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
125 Katherine Lippel, Ottawa ON, Professor of Law, Civil Law Section, University of Ottawa
126 Kathy Grant, Vancouver BC
127 Katrina Pacey, Vancouver BC, Pivot Legal Society
128 Katrina Peddle, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
129 Keith Hamilton Q.C., Vancouver BC
130 Kent Roach, Toronto ON, Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto
131 Kent West, Edmonton AB, Brownlee LLP
132 Kevin Tilley, Vancouver BC, CUPE Local 15
133 Kirk Tousaw, Duncan BC, Law Office of Kirk Tousaw
134 Krista Robertson, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
135 Kristy Sim, The Hague, The Netherlands, LLB (University of British Columbia) | MSt (University of Oxford)
136 Kyle Kirkup, Toronto ON, JD (Univesity of Ottawa) | LLM (Yale University)| SJD (c) (University of Toronto)
137 Lainie Basman, Toronto ON, Legal Aid Ontario
138 Laura Best, Vancouver BC, Embarkation Law Group
139 Leslie Robertson, Ottawa ON, Barrister + Solicitor
140 Lindsay Lyster, Vancouver BC, Moore Edgar Lyster,| President, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
141 Lisa Glowacki, North Vancouver BC, Ratcliff & Company LLP
142 Lisa Jean Helps, Vancouver BC, Helps Law
143 Lisa Kelly, Cambridge MA, JD (University of Toronto) | SJD (c) (Harvard Law School)
144 Lisa Kerr, New York NY, LLB (University of British Columbia) | LLM, JSD (c) (New York University)
145 Lobat Sadrehashemi, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
146 Louisa Chantler, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
147 Lyndsay Watson, Vancouver BC, Caroline + Gislason LLP
148 M. Kathleen Kinch, Vancouver BC
149 Maegen Giltrow, Vancouver BC, Lidstone & Company
150 Maia Tsurumi, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
151 Manpreet Dhaliwal, Toronto ON, Paliare Roland Rosenberg Rothstein
152 Marc Zurbuchen, Winnipeg MB, Rolston & Associates
153 Margot McMillan, Kamloops BC, Fulton & Company LLP
154 Maria Powell, Halifax NS, JD (University of New Brunswick)| LLM (c) (Schulich School of Law, Dalhousie University)
155 Marie Manikis, Montreal QC, Assistant Professor, Law Faculty, McGill University
156 Marie-Eve Sylvestre, Ottawa ON, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa
157 Marjorie Brown, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
158 Mark Redgwell, Victoria BC, Barrister + Solicitor
159 Mark Rowlinson, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
160 Marlys Edwardh, C.M., Toronto ON, Sack Goldblatt Mitchell LLP
161 Martha McCarthy LSM, Toronto ON, Martha McCarthy & Company LLP
162 Mary Childs, Vancouver BC, Ethos Law Group LLP
163 Matthew Gourlay, Toronto ON, Henein Hutchison LLP
164 Matthew Herder, Halifax NS, Assistant Professor, Faculties of Medicine and Law, Dalhousie University
165 Matthew Nathanson, Vancouver BC, MN Law
166 Meagan Johnston, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
167 Megan McConnell, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
168 Megan Schwartzentruber, Toronto ON, Cooper, Sandler, Shime & Bergman LLP
169 Megan Vis-Dunbar, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
170 Meredith Hagel, Vancouver BC, LLB (University of Alberta) | LLM (Cambridge University)| PhD (c) (University of British Columbia)
171 Micah Rankin, Kamloops BC, Thompson Rivers University
172 Michael Feder, Vancouver BC, McCarthy Tétrault LLP
173 Michael Fenrick, Toronto ON, Paliare Roland Rosenberg Rothstein LLP | Adjunct Faculty, University of Toronto Faculty of Law and Osgoode Hall Law School
174 Michael Jackson Q.C., Vancouver BC, Professor, University of British Columbia Faculty of Law
175 Michael McCubbin, Vancouver BC, Law Offices of Michael McCubbin
176 Michael Tammen Q.C., Vancouver BC, Michael Tammen Law Corporation
177 Mina Chamsi, Montreal QC
178 Nader Hasan, Toronto ON, Ruby Shiller Chan Hasan Barristers
179 Neil Chantler, Vancouver BC, Chantler & Company
180 Nicolas Martin Rouleau, Toronto ON, Nicolas M. Rouleau Professional Corporation / Nicolas M. Rouleau, Société Professionnelle
181 Nikki Charlton, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
182 Ondine Snowdon, Abbotsford BC, Grace, Snowdon & Terepocki LLP
183 Pablo Irribarra, Toronto ON, Jordan Battista LLP
184 Perri Ravon, Ottawa ON, Juristes Power/Power Law
185 Peter Copeland, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
186 Raji Mangat, Vancouver BC, British Columbia Civil Liberties Association
187 Rene-John Nicholas, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
188 Renee Lang, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
189 Richard Elliott, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
190 Richard Fowler, Vancouver BC, Fowler and Smith
191 Rishi Gill, Vancouver BC, RTG Law Corporation
192 Robert Champagne, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
193 Robert Cooper, Vancouver BC, Cooper Litigation
194 Robert Leckey, Montreal QC, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University
195 Robin Whitehead, Ottawa ON, Barrister + Solicitor
196 Russell Silverstein, Toronto ON, Silverstein & Associate
197 Ryan Clements, Toronto ON, Simcoe Chambers
198 Ryan Parsons, Vancouver BC, Eyford Macaulay Shaw & Padmanabhan LLP
199 Ryan Peck, Toronto ON, HIV & AIDS Legal Clinic Ontario
200 Samuel Singer, Montreal QC, Barrister + Solicitor
201 Sandra Ka Hon Chu, Toronto ON, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network
202 Sarah Allan, Vancouver BC, BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
203 Sara Hopkins, Vancouver BC, Barrister + Solicitor
204 Sarah Pole, Toronto ON, Law in Action Within Schools Program
205 Sarah Sharp, Vancouver BC
206 Scott Bernstein, New York NY, JD (University of British Columbia) | Open Society Foundations
207 Shaheen Hirani, Toronto ON, Barrister + Solicitor
208 Sonia Lawrence, Toronto ON, Osgoode Hall Law School
209 Stefanie Quelch, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
210 Stephanie Claivaz-Loranger, Saint-Charlessur-Richelieu QC, Barrister + Solicitor
211 Stephanie Drake, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
212 Steven Rogers, Vancouver BC, Victory Square Law Office LLP
213 Tanya DeMello, Toronto ON
214 Tara Santini, Montreal QC
215 Timothy Dickson, Vancouver BC, Farris, Vaughan, Wills & Murphy LLP
216 Tonia Grace, Abbotsford BC, Grace, Snowdon & Terepocki LLP
217 Trevor Winter, Toronto ON, Aboriginal Legal Services of Toronto (Board Member)
218 Ummni Khan, Ottawa ON, Faculty of Law and Legal Studies, Carleton University
219 Véronique Fortin, Montreal QC, Member of the Quebec Bar,| PhD (c) (University of California, Irvine)
220 Virginia Mathers, Vancouver BC, JFK Law Corporation
221 Walid Hijazi, Montréal QC, Desrosiers Joncas Nouraie Massicotte
222 Zoe Sinel, London ON, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Western University